Home
Back to top

Radiation Safety and Nuclear Security

What is Radiation?

Radiation is energy given off by matter in the form of rays or high-speed particles

There are two (2) types of radiation:

  • Non-Ionizing:  Energy in the form of electromagnetic waves, having sufficient energy to excite an atom but not enough to pull electron from orbit.  Examples: Radio-waves, Microwaves, Infrared, Ultraviolet light.
  • Ionizing: Ionizing radiation is radiation with enough energy so that during an interaction with an atom, it can remove tightly bound electrons from the orbit of an atom, causing the atom to become charged or ionized. Examples: X-rays, Alpha (α), Beta(β), Gama (ɣ), Neutrons
  • picture1_3.png

Electromagnetic Spectrum

picture9.jpg

The Uses of Ionizing Radiation

Sources of ionizing radiation are widely used in:

  • Medicine
  • Agriculture
  • Industry
  • Research and Education
  • Security checks

Biological Effect of Radiation

  • DNA is the main target
  • Different radiation types have different biological effects - for cell killing & mutation

picture10_1.png     picture11_2.png

 

Examples of harmful effects of radiation

Chronic (Late) Effects

e.g. thyroid and other cancers.

picture13_0.png

“Probablislitic”: Higher radiation dose = higher risk of getting cancer (compare to smoking: more cigarettes = higher risk of getting lung cancer)

Acute (Early) Effects

e.g. Radiation Burns, Hair loss, Radiation Sickness

picture16.png

“Deterministic”: These are effect which only manifest themselves above a certain threshold. Below these thresholds, there is no effect.

ALARA Principle - As Low as Reasonably Achievable

picture18.gif

Radiation Protection Devices

untitled-1.jpg

Measuring Radiation Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD)

picture24.png

A thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) is a passive type of radiation dosimeter used by radiation workers. A TLD measures exposure to ionizing radiation.

Whole Body and Environmental Dosimeters

picture25.png

ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORS

  • Tracerco™ NORM Monitor Kit
  • picture20.png
  • Norm GM Contamination Monitor
  • picture21.png

OTHER TYPES OF RADIATION MONITORS

picture27.png

Fixed Area Monitors

 

picture26.png

Real-Time Monitors

Results From Survey

  • Maximum dose rate recorded – 0.84µSv/hr
  • For 24hr operating days the effective dose    ̴ 7.4mSv/year
  • Average worldly dose from naturally occurring radiation
  • picture23.jpg

picture28.png